Engineering Thermophysics Research progresses in the research of chemical cogeneration and greenhouse gas emission reduction

The Distributed Energy Research Team of the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences carried out related work in the areas of coal-based chemical-power cogeneration energy-saving mechanism, key technology R&D, and system integration and optimization. The progress is as follows:

First, the mechanism research level

Using the analytical method, the loss distribution law of the polygeneration system was studied, and the "energy inflection point phenomenon" of the chemical synthesis process lost in the high chemical conversion rate was discovered and revealed.

In view of CO2 capture in cogeneration systems, starting from the idea of ​​Gibbs free energy conversion in the process of fuel conversion, the Gibbs free energy loss law and the CO2 enrichment mechanism in the process of fuel conversion were explored, and Gibbs free energy utilization was illustrated. The coupling relationship between CO2 separation energy consumption, and further reveals the CO2 capture energy minimization mechanism in the cogeneration system. The research mechanism shows that through appropriate conversion of fuel, excessive Gibbs free energy loss in the process of fuel conversion can be avoided, Gibbs free energy of fuel conversion reaction can be used and CO2 can be enriched, and the energy system can be used to achieve chemical energy cascade utilization. And reduce the dual purpose of CO2 separation work, to achieve the organic coupling of the two.

Second, key technology research and development

Three key technologies were developed: the development of catalysts and processes for key chemical synthesis processes, low-energy CO2 separation technologies, and new coal gasification technologies.

For the synthesis reactions involved in polygeneration systems, nickel-based catalysts for methanation have been developed. The methanation reaction temperature range is 350-700°C, and the catalyst can maintain good catalytic activity, thermal stability and mechanical strength in this temperature range.

Developed a process for the removal of CO2 by crystallization from potassium carbonate solution. For the conventional absorption process of potassium carbonate solution, since the rich liquid contains a large amount of water (generally about 60% to 70%), the solution needs to consume a lot of heat for moisture evaporation, resulting in high energy consumption for CO2 regeneration. The potassium carbonate solution crystallization absorption process utilizes the crystallization characteristics of potassium carbonate to concentrate the potassium carbonate rich liquid crystals and then send them to the regeneration tower, which greatly reduces the heat loss caused by water evaporation in the regeneration tower. This process can make CO2 regeneration energy. It consumes 40% to 60% of the traditional process.

In addition, the development and experimental verification of the new coal gasification technology of “grading and gasification of coal hydrocarbon components” has also been carried out. The technology has completed partial coal testing and testing of reaction conditions. At present, small-scale experimental installations are being set up and it is expected to complete small-scale commissioning within a few months.

Third, system integration and innovation:

Through process innovation, a number of co-production systems for the appropriate circulation of chemical unreacted gas, no adjustment and proper circulation, and CO2 recovery have been proposed. Studies have shown that, compared to IGCC and CO2 capture systems with CO2 capture, a cogeneration system for CO2 recovery has good energy-saving effects, and the relative energy-saving rate of the system can reach 14% to 21% under design conditions. Through the moderate circulation of chemical unreacted gas, the cogeneration system for recovery of CO2 can avoid the phenomenon that the energy consumption of the chemical synthesis unit increases sharply with the conversion rate (“inflection point phenomenon”), and at the same time enriches the CO2, and there is an optimal chemical cycle multiplying ratio. The cogeneration system has the best thermal performance. The Gibbs free energy gains of the cogeneration system relative to the IGCC and SNG production systems can offset the CO2 separation work and achieve a negative energy cost to capture CO2.

At present, related work has obtained a number of authorized patents, and research results have been published in many domestic and foreign journals such as Environmental Science and Technology, Applied Energy, ASME Transactions.

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